Historical Figures and Milestones in Social Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt, 1832 – 1920
German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt, recognized as the founding father of psychology. Wundt’s theories made significant contributions during the early development of social psychology. In 1862, Wundt identified two branches of psychology, physiological psychology and social psychology. Wundt’s writing contributed to Germany’s annual bibliography of psychological literature that by the early 1900s now included the heading of social psychology.
Wundt’s work was groundbreaking whereas he separated psychology from philosophy and developed objective measurement and control and added structure to the analysis of the mind.
Gustave Le Bon, 1841 – 1931
Biographies that chronicle French social scientist Gustave Le Bon agree that Le Bon’s greatest contribution to social psychology is the researched conducted on crowds and the collective mind. Le Bon describes this phenomenon as a “single being more primitive and suggestible than the individuals who comprise the group.” Sigmund Freud discusses Le Bon’s research and theories in Freud’s Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. Le Bon’s acclaimed works primarily discuss the psychology of crowd behavior. Le Bon wrote that while in a crowd, individual members subjected to a heightened state of emotion will succumb to the crowd mentality. Le Bon did concur that crowds are capable of engaging in positive social actions. The major common theme of Le Bon’s work is “people continue to maintain, or gain, control of government, civilization is moved in the direction of barbarism. (1931)
According to Speer, “Le Bon’s study has not been surpassed to this day. I believe he did not need to observe the great demagogues from Lloyd George to Lenin, Mussolini, and Hitler in order to fathom the mechanics of the mass psyche.” (1957)
Norman Triplett, 1861-1931
According to Strube, Triplett wrote what is recognized as the first published study of social psychology (2005). Triplett’s famous experiment was on the social facilitation effect. Triplett realized that cyclists tended to have faster cycling times while riding in groups. Triplett went on to demonstrate the social facilitation effect in a controlled environment and discovered that children performed tasks faster in pairs versus performing alone. Triplett had several theories and concluded that the physical presence of competition in the race liberates latent energy not ordinarily available. (1898). Triplett’s results appeared in the American Journal of Psychology in 1898.
Floyd Henry Allport, 1890 – 1978
Floyd Allport the founding father of experimental social psychology. Allport’s views became popular with the publication of Social Psychology in 1924. Allport contended that social psychology limits itself to the study of the behavior and consciousness of individuals. Allport believed that even though social psychology focuses on an individual reaction to group stimuli that social behavior is explained in terms of the principles of the individuals psychological functioning. (1924) Brother, Gordon Willard Allport, also an established psychologist.
Kurt Lewin, 1890 – 1947
The biography of Kurt Lewin concludes Lewin is the leader of group dynamic research and is considered the founder of modern social psychology. The equation, B=f(P,E), indicates that behavior is the combination of the person and environment, coupled with Lewins action research theory methodologies are used today to address social problems and group conflict.
Lewin’s field theory proposes that behavior is the result of the interactions of the individual and the environment. Lewin’s theory of social psychology supports the theory that individual traits and the environment interact to cause behavior. Lewin influenced today’s organizational psychology methodologies with experimental learning, leadership, action research, and group dynamics. (2010)
Stanley Milgram, 1933 – 1984
The greatest study in social obedience in psychology was conducted by Stanley Milgram in 1963. Milgram’s experiment focused on the conflict between authoritative obedience and personal conscience. Milgram examined defense justifications based on obedience, following the orders of superiors, for the acts of genocide committed by accused Nazi Officers during Nuremberg War Criminal trials of World War II. Milgram began the experiments July 1961 after completion of the Adolf Eichmann trial in Jerusalem. Milgram wanted to answer “Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?” (1974). Milgram primary objective in these experiments was to investigate if Germans were particularly obedient to authority figures as this was the most common explanation given for the behavior of the Nazi party in World War II.
Social Psychology Milestones
1862: Wilhelm Wundt proposes that psychology establish human or social sciences to study the higher mental processes involving language, social practices and customs, religion, and art.
1897: Norman Triplett publishes the first scientific study of social behavior, on a topic that was later called social facilitation.
1900: Wundt publishes the first volume of Völkerpsychologie (folk or social psychology) which analyzes different methods of social thought and behaviors.
1924: Floyd Allport publishes a social psychology text identifying the psychological branch of psychology.
1941–1945: The U.S. government recruits social psychologists to assist in the war effort.
1954: Social psychologists testify in the U.S. Supreme Court case, Brown v. Board of Education.
1965: The Society of Experimental Social Psychology is founded.
1968: John Darley and Bibb Latané present the bystander effect.
1974: The Society for Personality and Social Psychology is founded.
1985: The Casebook on Ethics and Standards for the Practice of Psychology in Organizations was published.
1986: The Science and Practice of Industrial and Organizational Psychology were published.
Veronica Emilia Nuzzolo, M.Ed., Ph.D.
Le Bon, Gustave, The Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia Library The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind – Gustave Le Bon, retrieved December 2012, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/333277/Gustave-Le-Bon
Lewin, Kurt, Biography Compiled by Greathouse, (2010) Julie, from Hothersall, David. (1995). History of Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. pp. 239-253.
Marrow, Alfred F. (1969). The Practical Theorist: The Life and Work of Kurt Lewin. New York: Basic Books, Inc. Schultz, Duane P., and Sydney Ellen Schultz. (1994). Psychology and Work Today. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. pp. 204.
T-Group Theory and Laboratory Method. (1964). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Worchel, Stephen, and Wayne Shebilske. (1992). Psychology: Principles and Applications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 604.
McGarty, C., & Haslam, S. A. (1997). Introduction and short history of social psychology. In C. McGarty & S. A. Haslam (Eds.)
McGraw-hill.com, The History of Social Psychology, retrieved December 2012, from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0073370592/640244/The_History_of_Social_Psychology.doc
Milgram, S. (1973). The perils of obedience. Harper’s Magazine, 62-77.
Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. Harpercollins
Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Small Group Theory and Team Processes, retrieved December, 2012 from http://www.siop.org/history/crsppp.aspx
Solomon Asch Center, retrieved December, 2012 from http://www.brynmawr.edu/aschcenter/about/solomon.htm
Speer, Albert, Spandau The Secret Diaries, Collins, London 1976, p.309.
Strubbe, M. J. (2005). What did Triplett really find? A contemporary analysis of the first experiment in social psychology. American Journal of Psychology, 118, 271-286.
Stryker, Sheldon and Burke, Peter J. (2000). “The Past, Present, and Future of an Identity Theory”. Social Psychology Quarterly 63 (4): 284–297. doi:10.2307/2695840JSTOR2695840
Triplett, Norman, (1898), The Dynamogenic Factors in Pacemaking and Competition, Indianna University, American Journal of Psychology, 9, 507-533.
Volkerpsychologie (social psychology), (10 vols, 1911-1920)
Wozniak, Robert, (1997), Floyd Henry Allport and Social Psychology, retrieved December, 2012 from http://www.brynmawr.edu/psychology/rwozniak/allport.html
Read and understood.
read and somewhat understood. they were all important figures to social psychology and their experiments and time paid off. I learned that Floyd was the founding father of experimental social psych and after Triplett’s discovery he published the first scientific study. I was interested in how he connected his observation on cyclists to children working better in groups.
Read and very confusing.
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I really found Floyd Allport very interesting, that social behavior is explained by ones principles of the individuals psychological functioning i found that to be very true.
Read and fully understood. The Milgram experiment showed people’s willingness to obey authority figure even if what they’re being instructed to do goes against their morals. Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison study is another study/experiment that brought attention to human behavior in terms of authority and the relationship between that and conformity. This study showed that behavior is in fact situational and that people are willing to conform and take on roles that elicit power and authority. These experiments bring about results that are sometimes shocking and difficult to process. However, they’re helpful in terms understanding how humans operate; especially when power is associated with authority or authoritative roles.
read and fully understood. I enjoyed reading LeBon’s experiement of people in large crowds, I totally agree, such as in an environment of a concert, the emotions are highhanded.
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read and understood a little
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Read and understood. Norman Triplett has a point on how people tend to work faster in a group rather than alone. I for one am a person who works faster in a group setting rather than alone.
read and found how Triplett’s famous experiment was on the social facilitation effect is very true and I could relate to. my coach used to tell us this and it is interesting to find out where this originated from
I Read and I believe I understood. I found it interesting how Stanley Milgram based his studies off of World War II, especially how he came to a conclusion that Germans were just accomplices (doing what they were ordered to do).
Read and understood. I agree with Norman Triplet the most as it reminds me of capitalism. Due to the competitiveness, businesses compete to provide consumers with better goods and services.
read and fully understood